Конструкционных материалов - Страница 9

Сварка сталей - Конструкционных материалов

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ОСОБЕННОСТИ СВАРКИ ОСНОВНЫХ КОНСТРУКЦИОННЫХ МАТЕРИАЛОВ

Низкоуглеродистые стали, содержащие до 0,25 % углерода, хорошо свариваются нормальным пламенем. При сварке возможно выгорание углерода, марганца и кремния, что может уменьшить прочность шва. При сварке деталей большой толщины для выравнивания механических свойств можно производить термообработку сваренных деталей (нормализацию, низкотемпературный отжиг). Для повышения производительности можно применять окислительное пламя. При этом нужно использовать присадочный материал с повышенным содержанием раскислителей марганца и кремния, например Рис. 44. Выполнение горизонтальных проволоку Св 0,6Г2С, Св 12ГС. правым (а) и потолочных швов левым (б) и правым («) способами С повышением содержания углерода свариваемость сталей ухудшается, повышается вероятность образования холодных трещин. При сварке среднеуглеродистых сталей применяют только нормальное пламя, мощность его выбирают на 20...30 % меньше, чем для низкоуглеродистых сталей. При толщине металла более 3 мм рекомендуется общий подогрев изделия перед сваркой до 250...350 °С или местный подогрев зоны сварки горелкой до 650...700 °С и отпуск сварного соединения при 600...650 °С. Для повышения свойств металла шва можно применять присадочную проволоку, содержащую от 0,5 до 1,0 % хрома и 2...4 % никеля, например Св 06НЗ или Св 18ХГС. Высокоуглеродистые стали, содержащие 0,6...2 % углерода, сваривают в основном так же, как и среднеуглеродистые. Лучше в этом случае применять левый способ сварки нормальным или слегка науглераживающим пламенем и низкоуглеродистую присадочную проволоку. Можно пользоваться бурой в качестве флюса. Хорошее качество соединений можно получать при толщине кромок не более 5...6 мм. Низколегированные стали перлитного класса сваривают тоже нормальным пламенем. Флюсы не применяют. Чтобы легирующие элементы (хром, молибден, кремний) не выгорали, нужно стремиться не перегревать металл. Предварительный и сопутствующий подогрев зоны сварки или всего изделия до температуры 250...360 °С и замедление охлаждения сварного соединения путем подогрева охлаждающегося шва пламенем горелки позволяют избежать появления горячих трещин. Для высоколегированных сталей газопламенная сварка - самый плохой способ сварки, особенно это относится к коррозионно-стойким и кислотостойким сталям, содержащим хром. Большая зона нагрева ведет к потере коррозионной стойкости. Сварку таких сталей следует вести нормальным пламенем пониженной мощности (~ 70 л/ч ацетилена на 1 мм толщины кромок) на большой скорости, не допуская перерывов. Тонкие кромки сваривают левым способом, толстые только правым. После сварки хромистых сталей рекомендуется термообработка изделия по режиму для данной стали.


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+1 #1 Игорь 28.11.2012 09:42
а можно уточнить в каких сталях углерод в десятых долях считается?
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+3 #2 Игорь 11.01.2014 09:20
Цитирую Игорь:
а можно уточнить в каких сталях углерод в десятых долях считается?

Цифры, стоящие впереди марки стали, указывают среднее с держание углерода в десятых долях процента для высоколе­гирова нных сталей, и в сотых долях процента легиро­ванных сталей.
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+1 #3 Семен 13.05.2014 04:31
в конструкционных сталях в сотых дольх а в инструментальны х в десятых но есть исключения, бустрорежущие столи и шарикоподшипник овые.
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